Lean Manufacturing and Six Sigma Definitions

Glossary terms, history, people and definitions about Lean and Six Sigma


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CEDAC is an acronym for Cause and Effect Diagram with the Addition of Cards, developed by Dr. Ryuji Fukuda. The process allows team members to build on another person’s ideas from a brainstorming session, while using the format of the traditional fishbone diagram used in quality circles and Six Sigma projects.

  • A problem statement is generated or presented to the team.
  • Each person receives a post-it note sticky pad and is asked to write out the causes of the problem.
  • Team members share what they wrote, and then post their ideas onto the CEDAC chart under the most appropriate category. These are placed on the left side of the line.
    • Typical categories to use are the 6 M’s:
      • Manpower
      • Machine
      • Methods
      • Materials
      • Mother Nature
      • Measurement
  • Ensure full participation of all team members, as some people are more outgoing than others. Also make sure that there is a “no blame” atmosphere, and every idea is good, and each individual is treated with respect.
  • The team should use a different color post-it note sticky pad and repeat the exercise, this time attempting to find solutions to each of the causes.
  • Solutions should be posted on the right side of the category, so it is separated from the causes.
  • The team should identify which solutions to implement first, and update the diagram as causes are reduced or eliminated that impact the original problem.



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