John W. Tukey (June 16, 1915 – July 26, 2000) was an American mathematician best known for development of the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) algorithm, box plot, the Tukey range test, and the Tukey lambda distribution. He is also credited with coining the term ‘bit’ when he worked on developing statistical methods for computers at AT&T Bell Laboratories.
During World War II, he worked at the Fire Control Research Office and is claimed to have helped design the U-2 spy plane.
After the war, he returned to Princeton, dividing his time between the university and Bell Labs. He became a full professor at 35 and founding chairman of the Princeton statistics department in 1965.
From 1960 to 1980, Tukey helped design the NBC television network polls used to predict and analyze elections. He was also a consultant to the Educational Testing Service, the Xerox Corporation and Merck & Company.
- Samuel Wilks
- Genichi Taguchi
- Dorian Shainan